Year 2017
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Year 2017
Calendar
By Tradition...
Jewish - Kabbalah
Holidays - 2017
Christian -
Ecumenical Mysticism /
Wisdom Tradition

Holidays - 2017
Unitarian Universalist
Holidays - 2017
Muslim - Sufi
Holidays - 2017
Baha'i Holidays - 2017
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Hindu Holidays - 2017
Jain & Sikh
Holidays - 2017
Buddhist Holidays - 2017
Taoist & Shinto
Holidays - 2017
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African &
Middle-Eastern
Holidays:
Ancient Egyptian,
Santeria, Zoroastrian - 2017
Native American
(Iroquois, Navajo

& Pueblo)
& Meso American
(Inca, Mayan & Aztec)
Holidays
- 2017
Pagan Holidays:
Old Religions of Europe

(Greek, Roman, Slavic,
Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic
& Norse) - 2017
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Deep Ecology /
Environmentalist
Dates
- 2017
Social Justice /
Human Rights /

Feminist
Dates
- 2017
Peace /
Disarmament
Dates
- 2017
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Solar & Lunar Cycles,
Eclipse & Helions
- 2017
Meteor Showers - 2017
Visible Planets - 2017
Astrological Periods - 2017
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Experiential Meditations
(for lunar cycles

throughout the year)
Empowering Meditations
Action Offerings
(to help the environment 
& further social justice)
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2017 Muslim - Sufi Holidays

* 1/1: World Peace Day--Day to meditate for peace throughout the world. [Universal Hour of Peace: 7:00-8:00 a.m. EST.]

* 1/4: Day ethnic discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1969); day to mourn all manifestations of racism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: signed/adopted 3/7/1966; entered into force 1/4/1969.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of race.] [The U.N. has designated 3/21 to 3/27 Week of Solidarity with the Peoples Struggling against Racism and Racial Discrimination.]

* 1/7: Beginning of 3 days of Islamic terrorists attacks, killing 17 people at the office of Charlie Hebdo magazine, at a Jewish market, and elsewhere in/near Paris, France (2015). [A Muslim police officer was among those who were killed at the office, and a Muslim man secreted patrons at the market to protect them.] [Following the attacks, Muslim governments and organizations condemned the attacks. Also following the attacks, 50+ anti-Muslim incidents occurred in France.] [While 4 Muslims participated in these attacks, and while some Muslims have participated in and supported other acts of Islamic terrorism, most Muslims are horrified by such acts done in the name of their religion. It is immoral to hold all Muslims responsible for the acts of a few.] [It is moral and laudable to condemn those who commit evil acts, including killings, torture, persecution, and discrimination. However, using "freedom of speech" as a justification for inciting hatred or violence against all Muslims (or Jews or Christians), or for bullying Muslims (or Jews or Christians) by ridiculing non-harmful aspects of their religion or culture, particularly when they are a disempowered minority group in one's country, is immoral, even if it is legal. Though legally-protected speech should not be censored or the source punished, when such incitement or bullying occurs, all moral people should use "freedom of speech" to reveal the hate speech for what it is and publicly condemn it. But regardless of the provocation, violence against noncombatants is illegal and immoral.] [See Wikipedia article on Charlie Hebdo Shooting and RT News article on the anti-Muslim aftermath.]   

* 1/8 eve to 1/9 eve: Day commemorating the death of Abdul Qadir Jilani (1166), Sufi saint who was renown for his compassion, particularly for the poor. [Jilani (Gilani) lived in Iraq, was founder of the Qadiri order, and was known as Ghauth al-'Azam, the "Great Helper". On this day annually, members of his order recite the Qur'an and distribute food to pilgrims and the poor in his honor. According to the Qadiris, he was 'born of love, lived in a perfect way, and died having achieved the perfection of love."] [See articles on Abdul Qadir Jilani.] [a/k/a Abdul Qadir Jilani Urs] [Rabi' al-Thani 11] [Born 1077; birth celebrated on Sha'ban 30 or Ramadan 1]

* 1/12: Day genocide was outlawed world-wide (1951); day to mourn all victims of genocide. [Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: signed/adopted 12/9/1948; entered into force 1/12/1951.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see Prevent Genocide International website.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should condemn all past genocides and, to prevent future genocides, should demand an end to persecution on account of any nationality, ethnicity, "race" or religion.]

* 1/15: World Religions Day--Day to contemplate all religions as different paths to the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 1/21: Day the Central Council of Ex-Muslims was founded to advocate for the human rights of those who convert from Islam (2007). [Though some interpret the Qur'an to guarantee the freedom to choose one's religion, others interpret Islamic law (Sharia) to authorize the killing of converts. Apostasy laws are used to persecute members of minority Muslim sects and Muslim dissidents as well as converts.] [The Qur'an says: "Let there be no compulsion in religion." See Qur'an Surah 2 Vs. 256. For scholarly discussions of freedom of religion in Islam, see "Freedom of Religion in Islam" by Ali Gomaa, Grand Mufti of Egypt; "Freedom of Religion" by Dr. Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Professor of Islamic law; "Freedom of Religion and Belief in Islam" by Mohsen Kadivar; "Religious Liberty: A Muslim Perspective" by Mohamed Talbi; and "Freedom of Religion in Islam" by Brig. Gen. (Retd.) Syed Ashrafuzzaman.] [Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee the freedom to choose one's religion.]

* 1/25 eve to 1/26 eve: Celebration day for Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi (d. 1240), Sufi saint who honored Deity as a unity manifested in all Nature, both genders, and countless forms. He theorized about divine immanence ("Allah is Nature, and Nature Allah"), divine transcendence ("Allah is above Nature, which Allah created"), and the unity of being. [El-Arabi lived in Spain and wrote "Bezels of Wisdom" and "Meccan Revelations".] [See article on Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi.] [For scholarly discussions of the obligation to preserve the environment in Islam, see "Towards an Islamic Jurisprudence of the Environment" by Prof. Mustafa Abu-Sway; "Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust Inviting Balanced Stewardship" by Prof. Frederick M. Denny; "Man and Ecology: An Islamic Perspective" by Islam From Inside; "Islam and Ecology" by Marjorie Hope and James Young; and "Islam and the Environment" by Gar Smith. See also Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences, an organization that advocates for environmental healing.] [a/k/a Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi Wissal] [Rabi' al-thani 28] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 1/26: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Somalia. [The Somali civil war has been ongoing since the socialist government of Siad Barre was ousted on 1/26/1991. (Barre had ruled since a 10/21/1969 military coup d'etat.) Somaliland declared its independence on 5/18/1991 and has been autonomous since. Multiple rebel groups vied for power over the remainder of Somalia. The U.N.'s peacekeeping mission from 1992-1995 attempted to provide order and humanitarian relief, but was unsuccessful. On its withdrawal, factions consolidated control over different parts of Somalia. A federal transitional government was formed on 5/5/2000 and an internationally-recognized government was inaugurated on 8/20/2012.] [In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union, an Islamist organization, occupied the south, but were ousted by the end of the year. Al-Shabaab (a/k/a Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen) formed when the Islamic Courts Union splintered. Al-Shabaab has been fighting government troops since that time. It has occupied parts of southern and central Somalia since 2007, imposing a severe form of Islamic law (Sharia) on those under its control. Al-Shabaab is grounded in Sunni Islam, while Somalis are largely Sufi Muslims. Al-Shabaab has attacked Sufi clerics, mosques, and shrines. Al-Shabaab has also attempted to eliminate "western" influences and has banned the teaching of science in schools. People caught not attending the mandatory prayers have been flogged. Women have also been flogged for wearing traditional Somali clothing (instead of expensive imported abayas), for engaging in commerce, and for mixing with men. Those accused of some crimes have had limbs amputated or been executed.] [In 2012, Al-Shabaab Emir Mukhtar Abu Zubair (Ahmed Abdi Godane) announced a merger with Al-Qaeda and planned international attacks. However, Al-Shabaab Deputy Emir Mukhtar Robow (Abu Mansur) opposed this alliance and wanted Al-Shabaab to focus on the Islamization of Somalia. Following Ahmed Abdi Godane's death in 2014, Emir Abu Ubaidah (Ahmad Umar) confirmed the alliance with Al-Qaeda.] [Somali government troops have been aided by Ethiopian troops (2006-2009), African Union troops (since 2007), and U.S. airstrikes. During the course of the war, thousands of civilians have been killed and hundreds of thousands have been displaced.] [See Wikipedia articles on Somali Civil War, Somaliland, Transitional Federal Government, Federal Government of Somalia, and Al-Shabaab (Militant Group).] [For information on the human rights situation in Somalia, see Human Rights Watch report: Somalia; Amnesty International report: Somalia.] [Al-Shabaab violates Islam's prohibition against taking innocent life, violates Islam's mandate to tolerate Muslims who hold other views, violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect, and violates Islam's mandate to promote the pursuit of knowledge.]

* 2/1 to 2/28: Ethnic Equality Month--Time to honor all peoples and their positive traditions; time to meditate on the equality of all peoples, on the respect due to them, and on God-Goddess manifesting as African, Asian, Oceanic, Middle Eastern, European, Hispanic, and Native American. [Expands idea of African-American History Month a/k/a Black History Month.]

* 2/2: Day Iran ratified the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1970). Despite ratification of this Treaty, in violation of this Treaty, Iran is believed to be attempting to develop nuclear weapons. [About Iran's Nuclear Weapons Program.] [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: signed 7/1/1968; entered into force 3/5/1970.] [Text of Convention] [The International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) is authorized to enforce compliance with the Treaty. For more information, see I.A.E.A. website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Nuke Guide.]

* 2/6: Day to mourn all the women and children who have been subjected to female genital mutilation. [Female genital mutilation is also known as "F.G.M." and "female circumcision". F.G.M. results in severe pain, bleeding, disfigurement, urine retention, recurrent infections, painful menstruation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and complications in childbirth.] [International Day of Zero Tolerance of Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting established on 2/6/2003 by the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (I.A.C.).] [See World Health Organization (W.H.O.) Fact Sheet on F.G.M.] [See also Gender Equity in Islam (which indicates F.G.M. predates Islam, is not mentioned in the Qur'an, and is not mandated by any hadith) and an Islamic fatwa condemning the practice of F.G.M. (ruling that F.G.M. is inconsistent with Islam because it causes harm to women) by Professor Ali Gom'a, Grand Mufti of Egypt (11/24/2006).] [For more information about F.G.M., see Female Genital and Sexual Mutilation - Bibliography.]

* 2/13: Birthday of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (1835). He advocated a peaceable form of Islam that rejects violent jihad. He believed he was a divine reformer and the Mahdi, who would rid the world of evil in the end days. [Death day 5/26/1908] [Ahmadis, Sufis, and many Sunnis and Shia's reject violent jihad. Jihad is conceived to be an inner struggle against evil of all kinds.]

* 2/18: Day Iranian police destroyed the shrine of the 14th-century Sufi poet and dervish Naser Ali, the holiest site of the Nematollahi Gonabadi Sufi community (2009). Vigil for the end of persecution of Sufis by Shi'as and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims. [Some Shi'a Muslims consider Sufi Muslims to be heretics. In addition to desecrating and destroying Sufi holy sites, Iran detains, flogs, and exiles Sufi leaders.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.]

* 3/1: Day the production and use of landmines was outlawed world-wide (1999); day to mourn their victims. [Protocol on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps, and Other Devices a/k/a Convention on Landmines a/k/a Mine Ban Treaty, amending the 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects: Treaty sgned/adopted 10/10/1980; entered into force 12/2/1983; Protocol signed 12/3/1997; entered into force 3/1/1999.] [Text of Convention] [Pakistan is still manufacturing landmines; Iran may still be manufacturing landmines. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the U.S. have not ratified the Protocol.] [Landmines maim and kill civilians, including children. Those that survive endure a lifetime of hardship.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production and use of landmines, and should demand removal and destruction of all existing landmines.] [For more information, see International Campaign to Ban Landmines (I.C.B.L.) website; Landmine Monitor website.] [The U.N. has designated 4/4 International Day for Mine Awareness.]

* 3/1 to 3/31: Gender Equality Month--Time to honor both genders; time to meditate on the equality of women and men, on the respect due to both women and men, and on Goddess-God manifesting as woman and man. [Expands idea of Women's History Month.]

* 3/2: Day to mourn the assassination of Shahbaz Bhatti for proposing reform of Pakistan's blasphemy law (2011). [Blasphemy laws have been used as a pretext to persecute members of minority Muslim sects, non-Muslims, dissidents, academics, and journalists. Even unintentional offense is considered blasphemy. Blasphemy is punishable by death in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan; and is punishable by imprisonment in Egypt and Indonesia. The religions of others should be respected, but freedom of speech should be respected, too.] [Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 19 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of expression.]

* 3/5: Day the Pakistani Taliban destroyed the shrine of the 17th-century Sufi poet-saint Abdur Rahman Baba (2009). Vigil for the end of persecution of Sufis by Sunnis and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims. [Some Sunni Muslims consider Sufi Muslims to be heretics. Sufis are persecuted in Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Somalia.] [Rahman Baba advocated love and tolerance: "Sow flowers, so your surroundings become a garden. Don't sow thorns; for they will prick your feet. We are all one body. Whoever tortures another, wounds himself."] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.]

* 3/8: International Women's Day--Day to mourn victims of gender-based oppression and misogyny (past and present), make peace, and celebrate women's empowerment. [See U.N. website on International Women's Day; A history of International Women's Day.]

* 3/8: Vigil for peace, democratic government, and respect for the human rights of all in Syria. [The 2011 unrest that grew out of the "Arab Spring" revolution became a civil war between the government and various factions, including both pro-democratic and Sunni Islamist groups. In the course of this war, the Syrian government has committed human rights abuses and used chemical weapons against civilians. See Wikipedia article on Syrian Civil War.] [Following subjugation of areas in Iraq and Syria, on 6/29/2014, the organization that now calls itself the "Islamic State" (p/k/a Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad/Organization of Monotheism and Jihad), led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri), declared a world-wide Islamic caliphate. However, it has not been recognized as a government or an Islamic caliphate. (To be recognized as an Islamic caliphate, it must be recognized by Islamic clerics and the Muslim populace throughout the world. The caliph must be chosen by Allah and elected by the Muslim people.) "Islamic State" has committed human rights abuses against civilians (primarily against Christians, Yazidis, Druze, Shabaks, Mandeans, and Shi'a Muslims). Thousands have been massacred, tortured, and forced to convert. Non-Muslim women and girls have been raped and sold into sexual slavery (forced "marriages"). It has imposed an extreme form of Islamic law on those under its control and has killed civilian Sunni Muslims who refuse to pledge allegiance to it. And it has committed war crimes against Syrian and Iraqi combatants.] ["Islamic State" has allied itself with militant groups, and claimed territory, in Libya, Sinai, Algeria, and elsewhere. It has also threatened international attacks.] ["Islamic State" violates Islam's prohibition against taking innocent life, violates Islam's mandate to tolerate Muslims who hold other views, violates Islam's mandate to protect "People of the Scripture", and violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect.] [See Wikipedia article on Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. For information on the human rights situation in Syria, see Human Rights Watch report: Syria; Amnesty International report: Syria.] [3/8 is Syria's national holiday. March 8 Revolution Day celebrates the day the Baath Party seized power by coup d'etat in 1963.]

* 3/9: Day slavery was outlawed world-wide (1927); day to mourn its continued existence. [Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery: signed/adopted 9/25/1926; entered into force 3/9/1927.] [Text of Convention] See also the Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention. [Text of Protocol] [Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 8 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from slavery.] [The U.N. has designated 3/25 Slavery Remembrance Day. The U.N. has designated 8/23 International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition. The U.N. has designated 12/2 International Day for the Abolition of Slavery.]

* 3/12: Day Pope John Paul II, in the name of the Catholic Church, asked Deity's forgiveness and apologized: to Christians of other denominations for intolerance to them, to Jews for anti-Semitism, to peoples of all non-Christian religions for intolerance and contempt for their religious traditions, to women for their humiliation and marginalization, and to the poor and the powerless for indifference to them (2000). [On the first Sunday in Lent in the Jubilee Year, as a part of the liturgy of the Mass inside St. Peter's Basilica, at the Vatican, Pope John Paul II made this public confession with the aid of seven cardinals and bishops. See Transcript of Confession and Request for Forgiveness.] [While the Catholic Church instigated the Crusades, forcibly converted non-Christians, and killed Christian dissidents, ordinary Catholics at the time had no say in it. Nor did any Christian alive today. While it is appropriate to expect atonement from the Catholic Church, it is immoral to blame all Catholics/Christians for the past abuses committed by the Church.]

* 3/18: Day the first woman served as imam, leading a public, mixed-gender, Muslim congregation in Jum'ah prayer, and delivering the sermon (2005). [Dr. Amina Wadud is an Islamic scholar, feminist, and professor at Virginia Commonwealth University. Dr. Wadud is the author of "Qur'an and Women: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman's Perspective," the first interpretive reading of the Qur'an by a woman. Dr. Wadud says that the Prophet Muhammad approved the practice of women leading mixed-gender prayer.] [See BBC News article.] [Since 3/18/2005, other women have served as imams for mixed-gender congregations.]

* 3/20: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Iraq. [The Iraq War officially lasted from 3/20/2003 to 12/18/2011.] [About the invasion of Iraq] [See Wikipedia article on the Iraq War.] [Following subjugation of areas in Iraq and Syria, on 6/29/2014, the organization that now calls itself the "Islamic State" (p/k/a Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad/Organization of Monotheism and Jihad), led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri), declared a world-wide Islamic caliphate. However, it has not been recognized as a government or an Islamic caliphate. (To be recognized as an Islamic caliphate, it must be recognized by Islamic clerics and the Muslim populace throughout the world. The caliph must be chosen by Allah and elected by the Muslim people.) "Islamic State" has committed human rights abuses against civilians (primarily against Christians, Yazidis, Druze, Shabaks, Mandeans, and Shi'a Muslims). Thousands have been massacred, tortured, and forced to convert. Non-Muslim women and girls have been raped and sold into sexual slavery (forced "marriages"). It has imposed an extreme form of Islamic law on those under its control and has killed civilian Sunni Muslims who refuse to pledge allegiance to it. And it has committed war crimes against Syrian and Iraqi combatants.] ["Islamic State" has allied itself with militant groups, and claimed territory, in Libya, Sinai, Algeria, and elsewhere. It has also threatened international attacks.] ["Islamic State" violates Islam's prohibition against taking innocent life, violates Islam's mandate to tolerate Muslims who hold other views, violates Islam's mandate to protect "People of the Scripture", and violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect.] [See Wikipedia article on Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. For information on the human rights situation in Iraq, see Human Rights Watch report: Iraq; Amnesty International report: Iraq.]

* 3/21: Nowruz--Persian New Year. [Celebrated by Shi'a and Sufi Muslims.] [A few days prior to Nowruz, the home is completely cleaned. A ceremonial haft seen table is set with seven symbolic dishes. They include sprouts (rebirth), garlic (health), pudding (abundant food), oleaster fruit (love and compassion), sumac berries (goodness), vinegar (patience to attain wisdom), and an apple (beauty). The table also generally includes a Qur'an, a mirror, candles, rose water, colored eggs, a hyacinth plant, a goldfish, and coins. On the night before Nowruz, a feast is held and a fire lit. On and following Nowruz, relatives, friends, and neighbors visit each other, and gifts are given to children.]

* 3/21: World Forest Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of trees, plants, birds, and mammals that live in forests world-wide; day to give thanks for forests for cleaning the air of pollution. [Forest once covered 50% of the world. Today, forest covers only 30% of the world. Since 1600, 90% of the original forests that once covered the lower 48 states of the U.S. has been cleared away. Most deforestation of North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia occurred before 2000 and has stabilized. Deforestation continues to accelerate in South America and Africa. The rate of world deforestation averaged 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010.] [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests; Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand an end to deforestation, and should demand universal observance of sustainable management practices of the world's forests.] [a/k/a World Forestry Day]

* 3/23: Day the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1889). Ahmadi Muslims preach love for all, hatred for none. [See the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community website.] [Ahmadis are persecuted by Sunni Muslims in Pakistan and Indonesia; they are harassed in Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Egypt. See Ahmadi website documenting their mistreatment. Vigil for the end of persecution of Ahmadis by other Muslims and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims.]

* 3/23: Vigil for the protection of women in Pakistan from "honor killings", dowry killings, female infanticide, domestic violence, rape, acid attacks, and other gender-based violence. [See Wikipedia articles on "Honor Killing" in Pakistan, Dowry Deaths in Pakistan, Female Infanticide, Domestic Violence in Pakistan, Rape in Pakistan, and Acid Throwing. See also Human Rights Watch report: Pakistan; Amnesty International: Violence Against Women.] [3/23 is Pakistan Day.]

* 3/26: Day production and use of biological weapons was outlawed world-wide (1975); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction a/k/a Biological Weapons Convention: signed 4/10/1972; entered into force 3/26/1975.] [Text of Convention] [Iran and Syria are believed to currently have biological weapons programs in spite of the Treaty's prohibition. Iran has ratified the Treaty; Syria has not. In 2003, Syria proposed making the Middle East a region free of all weapons of mass destruction, but no commitments have been made to bring that about.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of biological weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Biological Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 3/28 eve to 3/29 eve: Remembrance day for Sufi saint Haji Bektash (d. 1337). He initiated women into his order equally with men and advocated gender equality in Islamic society. [The Bektashi order is also open to all ethnicities, nationalities, and classes. See Bektashi Sufi Order website. The Qur'an says: "All are equal, regardless of gender or ethnicity; nobility is shown by conduct alone." See Qur'an Surah 49 Vs. 13.] [Rajab 1] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 4/1: Vigil for freedom of religion in Iran. [Shi'a Islam is the official religion. While some other Muslim sects and non-Muslim religions are officially recognized, some are not. Those that are not recognized (particularly Baha'is) and even some that are recognized (particularly Sunni Muslims, Sufi Muslims, Zoroastrians, and evangelical Christians) are discriminated against, harassed, or persecuted. Jews are vilified.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Iran.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [4/1 is Islamic Republic Day, the day the Iranian people voted in 1979 to become an Islamic Republic.]

* 4/7: World Health Day--Day to pray for healing of all those chronically and seriously ill; day to advocate for adequate health care for all. [Day the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) was founded in 1948.] [For information on World Health Day, see World Health Organization website.] [For information on the World Health Organization, see World Health Organization website.]

* 4/11: Day France banned Islamic face coverings, undermining Muslim women's autonomy and freedom of religious expression (2011). Day to mourn all laws that mandate a dress code in the name of religion or secularism. [Banning the covering is no different than mandating it: The face covering (niqab) is banned in Syria's universities as well as in France, but is mandated in Saudi Arabia. The full-body covering (burqa) is banned in Syria, but is mandated in Afghanistan under the Taliban. The scarf (hijab) is banned by Tunisia and Turkey in public universities and government offices, but is mandated throughout Iran and Kuwait.] [The Qur'an asks women to "guard their modesty". See Qur'an Surah 24 Vs. 31. It also says women should "cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad)." See Qur'an Surah 33 Vs. 58-59. But the Qur'an does not specify what women must wear, and Muslim women in different countries have traditionally, and in modern times, interpreted Qur'an requirements differently.] [Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religious expression.]

* 4/12: Day Saudi Arabia's Islamic authority condemned forced marriage as un-Islamic and banned the practice (2005). [Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh, who heads Saudi Arabia's Council of Senior Ulema (Scholars), said forced marriage is against Islamic law and those responsible for it should be jailed. He said: "Forcing a woman to marry someone she does not want and preventing her from wedding that whom she chooses...is not permissible" under Islamic law. "Anyone who insists on forcing a woman...to marry against her will is disobeying God and His Prophet (Muhammad)."] [See BBC News article.] [See also fatwa against forced marriage by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.]

* 4/22: Earth Day--Day to honor the Earth and to meditate on Deity manifesting as Mother Earth. [For information about Earth Day activities, see Earthday Network website; Envirolink website; U.S. E.P.A. website for Earth Day.] [a/k/a International Earth Day, National Earth Day]

* 4/22: Day the world's nations guaranteed asylum to those persecuted in their homelands on account of their ethnicity, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group (1954). [Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: signed 7/28/1951; entered into force 4/22/1954.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (U.N.H.C.R.) website; Human Rights Watch website.]

* 4/23 eve: Laylat al-Mi'raj--Commemorates the night journey of Muslim Prophet Muhammad to heaven. [a/k/a Lailatul-Miraj, Isra Miraj, Miraj al-Nabi, Israa', Me'raj] [night following Rajab 26]

* 4/24: Day the genocidal massacres of Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians began in Ottoman Turkey (1915); vigil for true peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Greater Anatolia. [During and after World War I, 1.5 million Armenians, 500,000 Greeks, and 300,000 Assyrians were killed. Able-bodied males were summarily executed or conscripted into forced labor. Women, children, the elderly, and the infirm were forced on death marches into the Syrian desert. The Ottoman government and the "Young Turks" were motivated primarily by ethnic nationalism to rid Turkey of non-Turks, but they also used religion to foster hostility against the Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians. Most Turks were Muslim, while most Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians were Christian.] [The government of Turkey refuses to acknowledge the deaths to have been an "ethnic cleansing", genocide, or a crime against humanity.] [On 4/24/1915, 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders were detained in Constantinople; they were later executed.] [a/k/a 1915 Genocide, Armenian Genocide, Medz Yeghern, Greek Genocide, Assyrian Genocide, Seyfo] [See Genocide 1915 website; Wikipedia article on Armenian Genocide; Wikipedia article on Greek Genocide; Wikipedia article on Assyrian Genocide; BBC article "Q&A: Armenian Genocide Dispute".] [Defining a country by its ethnicity or religion is contrary to international law. Using mass deportations or systematic murder to rid a country of another ethnic group or religion is also contrary to international law. It is also immoral, regardless of whether it is committed by or against Muslims, Christians, Jews, or another religious group.]

* 4/29: Day production and use of chemical weapons was outlawed world-wide (1997); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons a/k/a Chemical Weapons Convention: signed 1/13/1993; entered into force 4/29/1997.] [Text of Convention] [Iran and Syria are believed to currently possess chemical weapons in spite of the Treaty's prohibition. Iran has ratified the Treaty; Syria has not. The U.S. and Libya are currently in the process of destroying their chemical weapons in compliance with the Treaty. In 2003, Syria proposed making the Middle East a region free of all weapons of mass destruction, but no commitments have been made to bring that about.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of chemical weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Chemical Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (O.P.C.W.) webpage; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.] [a/k/a Day of Remembrance for All Victims of Chemical Warfare] [See U.N. website on Chemical Warfare Victims Remembrance Day.]

* 5/4: National Day of Prayer--Day to pray for freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government throughout the world. [Freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment. For text and information on the First Amendment, see Cornell University's Legal Information Institute website. For domestic organizations that advocate for freedom of religion, see Americans United for Separation of Church and State website; American Civil Liberty Union website. For information on religious freedom in countries around the world, see U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report; Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief website.]

* 5/9: Day the world's nations committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change (1992); day to mourn the failure to reduce these emissions. [Due to these emissions, the planet has already started to experience the impacts of climate change: increased extremes of summer dryness (heat waves, droughts, and wildfires) and winter wetness (flooding); an increase in extreme weather (hurricanes and tornados); an increase of sea level (loss of coastline and loss of fresh water); a decrease in glaciers and polar ice caps; an increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; loss of human habitat; loss of food availability (increase in food costs); and loss of plant and animal species (on land, in the oceans, and on the ice caps).] [Framework Convention on Climate Change: adopted 5/9/1992; signed 6/4/1992; entered into force 3/21/1994.] [Text of Convention] [The Kyoto Protocol, which includes mandatory reduction goals, was adopted by 180 nations 12/11/1997, signed 3/16/1998, and entered into force 2/16/2005.] [Text of Protocol] [The U.S. has refused to ratify the Protocol. Total U.S. emissions have increased by 11% from 1990 to 2010. They have been increasing at an annual average rate of .5%. The U.S. is the biggest polluter on the planet. 25% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions is emitted by the U.S.] [For more information, see U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change website; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website; Center for International Environmental Law website; Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; U.S. E.P.A. website on U.S. emissions 1990-2010; Columbia University website on Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors. See also Wikipedia article on the Kyoto Protocol.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand universal observance of practices that effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

* 5/10 eve: Nisfu Sha'ban--Muslim night of repentance for all harm done. [The following day, Allah determines the fate of all for the coming year.] [For views on attaining inner peace and world peace through Islam, see "Islam and World Peace - Explanations of a Sufi" by M. R. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen and "The Quran and World Peace" by Dr. Israr Ahmad. See also Muslim Peace Fellowship, an organization that advocates use of non-violent means to attain justice and positive social transformation.] [a/k/a Nisf Sha'ban, Lailatul-Bara'at, Lailutul-Bara'at] [night following Sha'ban 14]

* 5/14 (Obs. 5/2): Israel's Independence Day (1948). [The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel of 5/14/1948 asserts that Israel: "will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations." The Declaration also promises the Arabs living there "full and equal citizenship". But the Declaration also declares Israel to be a "Jewish state".] [See Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel.] [Since its establishment, Israel has laudably provided citizenship to Jews everywhere to enable them to "return" to Israel to avoid persecution and discrimination. See Wikipedia article on Law of Return. But it has denied the right of return to the Palestinian Muslim inhabitants who fled during the conflict at its founding in 1948. Many of those refugees and their descendants continue to be stateless. This exclusion is a source of ongoing conflict. See Wikipedia article on Palestinian Right of Return.] [Defining a country by its ethnicity or religion is contrary to international law. Excluding or disempowering another ethnic or religious group is also contrary to international law. It is also immoral, regardless of whether it is committed by or against Jews, Muslims, Christians, or another religious group.] [a/k/a Yom Ha'atzmaut] [Observed Iyar 5]

* 5/22: Biological Diversity Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of the many diverse species on the Earth: The extinction of other species will bring about our own extinction. [There has been a 40% loss of species between 1970 and 2000 due to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution. Our unsustainable consumption exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by about 20%.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Biological Diversity.] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity: signed 6/5/1992; entered into force 12/29/1993.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity website.] [The Convention on Biological Diversity was contracted to ensure conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.] [For more information, see Center for International Environmental Law website.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand universal observance of practices that effectively preserve all species of life, and should demand an end to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution of all kinds.] [a/k/a International Day for Biological Diversity, World Biological Diversity Day, Biodiversity Day]

* 5/22: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Yemen. [President Ali Abdullah Saleh had been president of Yemen since its unification in 1990, and had been president of North Yemen since 1978. Saleh's government had been opposed as corrupt since 1994. The minority Shi'a Muslims (in the north) felt discriminated against by the predominant Sunni Muslims (in the south). Saleh's government had been fighting Shi'a Houthi militants in North Yemen since 2004. Saleh's government had been fighting separatists in South Yemen since 2009. Yemen is the stronghold of Sunni Islamic terrorist organization Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (a/k/a AQAP), and Saleh's government had been fighting them since 2010. Saleh was forced to resign in 2011, following mass protests over his attempt to become president for life. Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi took over and was subsequently elected president in 2012. Hadi was ousted by Houthi militants in 2015.] [See Wikipedia articles on the Yemeni Revolution, Houthi Insurgency in Yemen, South Yemen Insurgency, and Al-Qaeda Insurgency in Yemen.] [5/22 is Yemen's Unity Day, marking the unification of North Yemen and South Yemen in 1990.]

* 5/26 eve to 6/24 eve: Ramadan--Muslim month of purification by self-reflection, fasting from sunrise to sunset, peace-making, and helping those in need. [Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex. A communal banquet (iftar) is shared each night after sunset. The entire Qur'an is read or recited during Ramadan.] [The ill, the elderly, the young, pregnant women, nursing women, and menstruating women are exempt from the fast.] [Ramadan Truce (through Eid al-Fitr): Time to cease all forms of conflict (at least temporarily), extend a greeting to your adversary, and share an iftar for peace.]

* 5/29: Vigil for peace, freedom of religion, and respect for the human rights of all in Nigeria. [Secular law protects freedom of religion in central and southern Nigeria, where the population is Muslim, Christian, and traditional Yoruba. But in northern Nigeria, where Muslims predominate and Christians are a minority, despite constitutional protections, Islamic law (Sharia) has been imposed in 12 states, beginning in 2000.] [Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram (a/k/a Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad/People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad), has also been attempting to overthrow the secular Nigerian government and impose its extreme form of Islam on the population since 2009. Boko Haram was founded by Mohammed Yusuf and, since his death in 2009, has been led by Emir Abubakar Shekau. Boko Haram opposes the "westernization" of Nigeria. It has taken control of many northern Nigerian towns. It has destroyed churches, mosques, and schools. It has abducted and killed thousands of civilians, both Christians and moderate Muslims, many of whom are children. Non Muslims under their control have been forced to convert. Unmarried women and girls have been sold into sexual slavery (forced "marriage"). Since 2013, Boko Haram has also made incursions into Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. In 2015, Boko Haram pledged allegiance to "Islamic State".] [See Wikipedia articles on Sharia in Nigeria and on Boko Haram Insurgency. See also Human Rights Watch report: Nigeria; Amnesty International report: Nigeria.] [Boko Haram violates Islam's prohibition against taking innocent life, violates Islam's mandate to tolerate Muslims who hold other views, violates Islam's mandate to protect "People of the Scripture", violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect, and violates Islam's mandate to promote the pursuit of knowledge.] [5/29 is Nigeria's Democracy Day. Military rule was replaced with constitutional democracy on 5/29/1999.]

* 6/4 eve to 6/5 eve: Remembrance day for Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (d. 619 or 623), Mother of Islam - first convert to Islam, partner of Prophet Muhammad in monogamous marriage, mother of Fatimah, and liberated businesswoman. [The Prophet Muhammad did not take a second wife during Khadijah's lifetime. Khadijah was intelligent and compassionate. She was known for her financial support of Islam, for her generosity to the poor, for her protection of orphans, and for freeing slaves.] [See Wikipedia article on Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.] [For scholarly discussions of gender equality in Islam, see "Members, One of Another: Gender Equality & Justice in Islam" by Riffat Hassan and "Gender Equity in Islam" by Jamal Badawi Ph.D. For an examination of the feminist movement in Islam, see "Inside the Gender Jihad: Women's Reform in Islam" by Amina Wadud.] [a/k/a Khadijah al-Kubra (the Great)] [Ramadan 10] [Born in 555, 564, or 565. Some sources say she died on the 10th or 11th day of Ramadan.]

* 6/8: Death day of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) (632), mystical Father of Islam. [Death commemorated on Safar 28.] [Born 570: exact date unknown]

* 6/8: World Oceans Day--Day to recognize the world's dependence on the oceans for food and medicine; day to advocate for the sustainable management of all ocean resources and for an end to the pollution of the oceans with toxins and trash. [See U.N. website on World Oceans Day.] [For information on ocean pollution and fisheries conservation, see Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.] [Fish stocks have collapsed in almost one-third of all ocean fisheries. The rate of decline is accelerating and total loss of fisheries could occur by mid-century. Fishery decline is caused by overfishing the stock, the loss of marine biodiversity associated with the stock, pollution, and climate change. Establishing core protected areas for each surviving stock and preventing the stock from being fished above the maximum sustainable yield are crucial for its survival.] [For information about the collapse of fishery stocks, see U.N. Environment Programme report "In Dead Water"; National Center for Policy Analysis article; Wikipedia article on Overfishing.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand an end to pollution of the oceans, and should demand universal observance of sustainable management practices of ocean fisheries.]

* 6/17: Day a fatwa condemned "honor killings" as un-Islamic and banned the practice (2002). [An "honor killing" is the killing of a woman by her relatives because she has been raped, is suspected of sexual activity outside of marriage, is pursuing unauthorized courtship, has refused an arranged marriage, or is seeking a divorce.] [Sheikh Atiyyah Saqr, former head of the al-Azhar University Fatwa Committee said "Islam strictly prohibits murder and killing without legal justification. Allah, Most High, says, 'Whoso slayeth a believer of set purpose, his reward is Hell for ever. Allah is wroth against him and He hath cursed him and prepared for him an awful doom.' (An-Nisa': 93) The so-called 'honor killing' is based on ignorance and disregard of morals and laws, which cannot be abolished except by disciplinary punishments...[P]eople are not entitled to take the law in their own hands, for it's the responsibility of the Muslim State and its concerned bodies to maintain peace, security, etc., and to prevent chaos and disorder from creeping into the Muslim society."] [Islamic fatwa condemning "honor killings"] [See also "Honor Killings in the Name of Religion" by Mohamad K. Yusuff (Islamic Research Foundation International); United Nations Report on Honor Killings.]

* 6/17: Day Pakistan disenfranchised Ahmadi Muslims by requiring them to declare themselves to be non-Muslim in order to vote (2002). Vigil for the end of persecution of Ahmadis by other Muslims and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims. [The Sunni Muslim majority in Pakistan persecutes Ahmadis because they consider them to be heretics. See Ahmadi website documenting their mistreatment.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion (and freedom from coercion that would impair freedom of religion) and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.]

* 6/17: Day Saudi Arabian women (and men dressed as women) protested the ban on women driving by driving around Saudi cities (2011). [See Guardian news article.] [Because clerics have banned women from driving, women are required to rely on male relatives or hire male drivers to go to work, school, the market, and the doctor. Women in Saudi Arabia are also required to have a male guardian and are prohibited from mixing with men. Some Muslim scholars say these limitations on women's rights and freedoms are cultural, not religious: they have no basis in the Qur'an. See Wikipedia article on Women's Rights in Saudi Arabia.]

* 6/21 eve: Laylat al-Qadr/Night of Power--Commemorates the first revelation of the Qur'an to Muslim Prophet Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel in 610 CE. The Qur'an says: "Let there be no compulsion in religion." [See Qur'an Surah 2 Vs. 256. For scholarly discussions of freedom of religion in Islam, see "Freedom of Religion in Islam" by Ali Gomaa, Grand Mufti of Egypt; "Freedom of Religion" by Dr. Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Professor of Islamic law; "Freedom of Religion and Belief in Islam" by Mohsen Kadivar; "Religious Liberty: A Muslim Perspective" by Mohamed Talbi; and "Freedom of Religion in Islam" by Brig. Gen. (Retd.) Syed Ashrafuzzaman. But see U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia is the center of Sunni Islam); and U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Iran (Iran is the center of Shi'a Islam).] [a/k/a Lailatul-Qadr] [night following Ramadan 26]

* 6/24 eve to 6/27 eve: Eid al-Fitr--Muslim festival celebrating the end of Ramadan. [Muslims break the fast with sweets and celebrate with large meals. Special prayers are recited and offerings are made to help the needy. Muslims ask for Allah's forgiveness, peace, and blessings for all living beings around the world; they also extend forgiveness to those who have harmed them. Muslims exchange greetings, visit one another, and give gifts to children.] [a/k/a Eid-al-Fitr, Id al-Fitr, Eidul-Fitr] [Shawwal 1-3]

* 6/26: Day torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment were outlawed world-wide (1987); day to mourn their continued existence. [Torture is an illegal, immoral, and ineffective means of interrogation and punishment. All officials have a legal duty and moral obligation to refuse an order to commit torture and to prevent it from occurring. Anyone who attempts, conspires, or commits torture is legally culpable. All acts of torture should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished. Neither war nor civil strife nor emergency justifies torture.] [Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: adopted 12/10/1984; signed 2/4/1985; entered into force 6/26/1987.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee Against Torture monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 7 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.] [See U.N. website on Torture Victims' Day.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should condemn torture, and should demand an end to the use of torture - of anyone for any purpose.] [a/k/a International Day in Support of Victims of Torture]

* 6/27: Day the International Criminal Court indicted Libya's Moammar Gaddafi for crimes against humanity for ordering the imprisonment and killing of hundreds of dissidents and demonstrators against his regime (2011). Also indicted were Gaddafi's son, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, and Gaddafi's chief of military intelligence, Abdullah Senussi. [Gaddafi ruled Libya from 1969 (when he ousted King Idris) until he was overthrown and killed on 10/20/2011. He was never elected leader of Libya.] [All who detain or harm peaceful dissidents or demonstrators should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished.] [Articles 19 and 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 19 and 21 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of expression and assembly.]

* 6/30: Vigil for peace, religious freedom, the end of slavery, and respect for the human rights of all in Sudan. [About the Darfur crisis] [For more information on the Darfur conflict, see Global Security website and Wikipedia article on War in Darfur. And for information on the conflict between north and south Sudan, see Wikipedia article on the Second Sudanese Civil War (which ultimately resulted in the secession of South Sudan on 7/9/2011). See also BBC News Sudan Profile. For information on the human rights situation, see Human Rights Watch report: Sudan; Amnesty International report: Sudan; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Sudan.] [6/30 is Sudan's Revolution Day, the day in 1989 when Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a military coup d'etat against Prime Minister Sadiq al Mahdi. The military government suspended political parties and introduced Islamic law.]

* 7/1: Day the world's nations committed to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons (1968); vigil to protest the production and use of all nuclear weapons world-wide. [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: signed 7/1/1968; entered into force 3/5/1970.] [Text of Convention] [The U.S. used 2 atomic bombs on Japan in 8/1945: over 270,000 civilians died from the bombs and radiation. The original nuclear powers have failed to destroy their nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's requirement that they work towards disarmament. Pakistan has developed nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's prohibition; Pakistan has not ratified the Treaty. 9 countries are known to currently possess nuclear weapons, and other countries (including Iran) are believed to be attempting to develop or acquire them. (Iran has ratified the Treaty.) In 2003, Syria proposed making the Middle East a region free of all weapons of mass destruction, but no commitments have been made by Iran, Syria, or Israel to make the Middle East a nuclear-free zone.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of nuclear weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Nuclear Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) website. And see Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) nuke guide for information on Pakistan's nukes; Iran's nukes.]

* 7/1: Day endangered species became internationally protected (1975); day to celebrate all the world's creatures. [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora a/k/a C.I.T.E.S.: signed/adopted 3/3/1973; entered into force 7/1/1975.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme C.I.T.E.S. website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 7/2: Day discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and religion was prohibited in public accommodations, employment, and education (1964). [The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson.] [Pub. L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, 42 U.S.C. 2000a et seq.] [Text of statute] [Title II prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, Title III and Title VI prohibit discrimination by local governments, Title IV and Title IX prohibit discrimination in education, and Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment.] [For information on fighting discrimination based on "race" and "color", see U.S. E.E.O.C. website, and for information on fighting discrimination based on national origin, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on gender (including sexual harassment), see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on religion, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website.]

* 7/11: Baha'i Rights Day--Vigil for the end of persecution of Baha'is in Iran. In Iran, Baha'is are prohibited from practicing or teaching their religion, are arbitrarily arrested and detained for long periods, are excluded from universities, and have their property confiscated. [The Baha'i Faith was founded in Iran by an Iranian, and many Baha'is are Iranian and reside in Iran. Some Muslims consider Baha'is to be Muslim apostates and refuse to recognize their religion.] [See Baha'i website and Muslim Network for Baha'i Rights website documenting mistreatment of Baha'is in Iran.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.]

* 7/11: Day Srebrenica, Bosnia, fell to attacking Serbs (1995), beginning a massacre of thousands of civilians because of their ethnicity and religion; vigil for true peace, justice, religious tolerance, and respect for the human rights of all in the Balkans. [Though it was declared a U.N. "safe haven," Srebrenica, Bosnia, was attacked and fell to Orthodox Christian Serb aggressors on 7/11/1995. 8,000-15,000 civilian Muslim Slavs were killed there from 7/12-7/17/1995 because of their ethnicity and religion. On 8/2/2001, Bosnian Serb General Radislav Krstic was convicted of genocide for his part in the massacre.] [For more information, see Report of the Secretary General Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 53/35 (1998).] [Between 1992 and 1995, motivated by ethnic nationalism, the Bosnian Serb government attempted to rid all areas under its control of non-Serbs, targeting both Muslim Bosniaks and Catholic Croats in a campaign of "ethnic cleansing". See Wikipedia article on the Bosnian Genocide; Peace Pledge Union article on the Bosnian Genocide.] [Defining a country by its ethnicity or religion is contrary to international law. Using mass deportations or systematic murder to rid a country of another ethnic group or religion is also contrary to international law. It is also immoral, regardless of whether it is committed by or against Christians, Muslims, Jews, or another religious group.] [While some Orthodox Christians participated in the massacre and the "ethnic cleansing" campaign, most Orthodox Christians then and now were horrified by it. It is immoral to hold all Orthodox Christians (or all Christians) responsible for the acts of a few.] [For information on the human rights situation today, see Human Rights Watch report: Serbia; Human Rights Watch report: Bosnia-Herzegovina; Human Rights Watch report: Croatia; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Serbia; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Bosnia-Herzegovina; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Croatia.]

* 7/23: Vigil for peace, democratic government, freedom of religion, and respect for the human rights of all in Egypt. [The unrest that grew out of the "Arab Spring" resulted in the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak in 2011. The Islamist Muslim Brotherhood's Mohamed Morsi was democratically elected president in 2012. Protests against Morsi's authoritarianism led to a 2013 military coup d'etat, and Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected president in 2014. Mubarak and Morsi supporters have been prosecuted and many have been executed.] [See Wikipedia article on Egyptian Revolution of 2011.] [For information on the human rights situation in Egypt, see Human Rights Watch report: Egypt; Amnesty International report: Egypt.] [Sunni Islam is the official religion. Christianity and Judaism are also legally recognized. However, Christians are subjected to attacks, harassment, and discrimination. Shi'a Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims, and Baha'is are not recognized; they are also subjected to harassment and discrimination.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Egypt.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [Though it is officially unlawful, most women in Egypt have been subjected to female genital mutilation. See U.N.I.C.E.F. data.] [7/23 is Egypt's Revolution Day. It celebrates the 1952 revolution that overthrew and abolished the Egyptian monarchy, ended British occupation, and established a republic.]

* 8/1: Day the production and use of cluster munitions was outlawed world-wide (2010); day to mourn their victims. [The Convention on Cluster Munitions a/k/a C.C.M.: Treaty adopted 5/30/2008, signed 12/3/2008; entered into force 8/1/2010.] [Text of Convention] [See Convention on Cluster Munitions website; Wikipedia article on Convention on Cluster Munitions.] [See also U.N. Charter Article 26, which gives the U.N. Security Council authority to regulate armaments.] [Text of U.N. Charter, chapter V, article 26] [The treaty was opposed by countries that produce or stockpile significant quantities of cluster munitions, including the U.S. and Pakistan. For more information, see Cluster Munition Coalition (C.M.C.) website; Cluster Munition Monitor website.] [Cluster bombs disperse smaller bomblets over a wide area. They are inherently inaccurate, making civilian casualties more likely. Unexploded cluster bombs remain a life-threatening hazard for civilians long after conflict ends.] [See Wikipedia article on Cluster Munitions.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production and use of cluster munitions, and should demand removal and destruction of all existing cluster munitions.]

* 8/2: Day the Israeli Supreme Court ruled that an illegal Jewish settlement on Palestinian private property in the Israeli-occupied West Bank must be removed (2011). The Migron settlement was first built in 1999, and has been disputed since then. [There are 120 Israeli settlements in the West Bank, housing about 300,000 settlers. 80 are built on the private property of Palestinians. 21 have been officially authorized by Israel. All are illegal under international law.]

* 8/8: Vigil for continuing progress in Burma's democratic evolution, religious tolerance, and respect for human rights. [On 8/8/1988, a pro-democracy demonstration opposing the authoritarian military government was attacked by government troops.] [Burma (a/k/a Myanmar) became independent in 1948. However, a military ruler dominated Burma from 1962 to 1988, and a military junta took control in 1988. Despite her National League for Democracy party being elected in 1990, Aung San Suu Kyi was never allowed to serve in office. Instead, she was held under house arrest for almost 15 years. And for 20 years, the military junta suppressed democratic efforts and violated human rights. However, since 2008, the military junta has been making efforts towards reform. In 2010, the first elections since 1990 were held. Though that election was not considered to be free and fair, the military-supported civilian government that was elected has been instituting reforms. In an election on 4/1/2012, Aung San Suu Kyi was elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw (lower house of the Burmese Parliament) and the National League for Democracy party won most of the vacant seats.] [90% of the population is Theravadan Buddhist. Christians and Muslims constitute the primary religious minorities. The government has favored Buddhism. Non-Buddhists are subjected to discrimination and pressure to convert.] [Rohingya Muslims are being persecuted because of their ethnicity and religion. Though they are indigenous to Rakhine State (Burma), they have been treated as foreigners and denied citizenship since 1982. Mobs, sometimes aided by the military or police, have targeted them with violence since 2012. Defining a country by its ethnicity or religion is contrary to international law. Excluding an ethnic or religious group from a country is also contrary to international law. It is also immoral, regardless of whether it is committed by or against Buddhists, Muslims, or another religious group.] [For information on the human rights situation in Myanmar/Burma, see Human Rights Watch report: Burma; Amnesty International report: Myanmar; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Burma.]

* 8/15: Day India was partitioned into India and Pakistan, and Kashmir joined India over Pakistan's objection (1947); vigil for true peace, justice, and religious tolerance for all in South Asia. [Following partition, over 7 million Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India and over 7 million Muslims migrated to Pakistan. Hindus and Sikhs remaining in Pakistan are subjected to persecution, including forced conversion and violence (particularly by the Taliban). Muslims remaining in India have suffered discrimination and periodic mob violence. Defining a country by its religion is contrary to international law. Excluding a religious group from a country is also contrary to international law. It is also immoral, regardless of whether it is committed by or against Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, or another religious group.] [For information on the human rights situation today, see Human Rights Watch report: India; Human Rights Watch report: Pakistan; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: India; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Pakistan.] [About the Indo-Pakistani conflict] [For information on the history of the conflict, see Jammu & Kashmir: The Complete Knowledge Base.] [For information on the nuclear problem, see Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) website: Indo-Pakistani Conflict; India's nukes; Pakistan's nukes.]

* 8/17: Vigil for peace, justice, religious tolerance, and respect for the human rights of all in Indonesia. [The Indonesian constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government officially respects the religious freedom for 6 recognized religions: Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism. However, other religions are not recognized (Sikhism, the Baha'i Faith, Judaism, and the traditional Aliran Kepercayaan), and some are deemed "deviant" (Ahmadiyya Islam and Shi'a Islam). In addition, the government allows members of the majority Sunni Muslim religion to persecute minority religious groups, including Christians, Ahmadi Muslims, and Shi'a Muslims. Members of minority groups are targeted for forced conversion to Sunni Islam, their places of worship are destroyed, and they are prosecuted for "blasphemy".] [See Human Rights Watch report: Indonesia; Amnesty International report: Indonesia; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Indonesia.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [8/17 is Indonesia's Independence Day.]

* 8/18: Day Islamic leaders declared that Muslims have a religious duty to fight climate change (2015). [They asked all individuals, leaders, and businesses to commit to 100% renewable energy. They also asked wealthy nations and oil-producing nations to phase out greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and invest in green economies.] [They said: "God - Whom we know as Allah - has created the universe in all its diversity, richness and vitality: the stars, the sun and moon, the earth and all its communities of living beings. All these reflect and manifest the boundless glory and mercy of their Creator. All created beings by nature serve and glorify their Maker, all bow to their Lord's will. We human beings are created to serve the Lord of all beings, to work the greatest good we can for all the species, individuals, and generations of God's creatures."] [See Islamic Declaration on Global Climate Change.]

* 8/22 eve to 9/20 eve: Dhu al-Hijjah--Muslim month of pilgrimage (the Hajj) to honor Allah, the one genderless universal Deity, at the holy shrine of the Kaaba Stone in Mecca. [Mecca was also the site of the Old Arabic shrine to God Al-Lah and his daughters, Goddesses Al-Lat, Al-'Uzza, and Manat. See Qur'an Surah 53, Vs. 19-20. See also summaries of scholarship on the "Daughters of Allah" from the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, from Wikipedia, from Sam Shamoun, and from Margi B. ] [a/k/a Zul-Hijjah]

* 8/25: Day to mourn the Iraqi attacks on civilian Kurds because of their ethnicity (1988); vigil for justice and respect for the human rights of the Kurdish people. [On 8/25/1988, Saddam Hussein's Iraqi government began the fourth Anfal campaign against the Kurds in Northern Iraq using chemical weapons. The first attack occurred on 3/16/1988. 60,000-100,000 Kurds were killed during these campaigns.] [See Human Rights Watch report: Genocide in Iraq.]

* 8/26: Day Saudi Arabia first criminalized domestic violence (2013); day to mourn the continuing abuse of Saudi women. Domestic violence violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect. [See Human Rights Watch article on Saudi Arabia's domestic violence law; Wikipedia article on Domestic Violence in Saudi Arabia. See also Wikipedia article on Women's Rights in Saudi Arabia.]

* 8/27: Vigil for the recognition of equal rights for women in Iran. [Day the modern women's rights campaign "One Million Signatures" was launched in Iran (2006). The campaign aims to end legal discrimination against women in Iranian laws. Campaign activists have been attacked and jailed. See Wikipedia articles on One Million Signatures; Women's Rights Movement in Iran.] [Women's rights in Iran have risen and fallen with political change. Following the Persian Constitutional Revolution in 1906, women were educated in greater numbers and participated in public affairs. But following the coup d'etat by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, women's rights were generally truncated. Following Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi's White Revolution in 1963, women were granted the right to vote and accorded some marriage protections. Though women participated in the Iranian Revolution in 1979 that toppled the shah, their rights were thereafter curtailed by Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The marriage protections were eliminated, inheritance rights were undermined, women were barred from certain employment, sex-segregation was imposed, and an Islamic dress code was mandated. Since 1989, under Supreme Leader Seyyed Ali Khamenei, women's rights have improved somewhat, but legal inequalities continue, and domestic violence and child marriage continue to be problems. Despite legal limitations, women attain university education and employment in large numbers. See Wikipedia article on Women's Rights in Iran. See also Wikipedia article on Domestic Violence in Iran; Justice for Iran article on Early and Forced Marriages in the Islamic Republic of Iran.]

* 8/28: Opening of the Second World Parliament of Religions (1993), attended by members of all the world's religions. A Global Ethic was adopted that condemns hatred, aggression, oppression, and environmental abuses committed in the name of religion. [Text of Global Ethic] [See also website for the Parliament of the World's Religions.]

* 8/28 eve to 9/4 eve: Hajj--Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca to honor Allah. [Pilgrims begin the Hajj by bathing, and men dress in special white clothing. On the first day, pilgrims walk/run 7 times counter-clockwise around the Kaaba and kiss the stone. With each circuit, pilgrims say: "In the name of Allah, Allah is Great, Allah is Great, Allah is Great, and praise be to Allah." Following completion of the 7 circuits, pilgrims pray in the mosque. Pilgrims then walk/run between the hills of Safa and Marwa, reciting prayers, and drink water from the sacred Zamzam well. (This area is now fully enclosed within a mosque.) On the second day, pilgrims go to Mina and pray, camping overnight. The third day, pilgrims go to the plain of Mt. Arafat, keep vigil, pray for forgiveness of transgressions and for strength, and recite the Qur'an near where Prophet Muhammad gave his last sermon. At sunset, pilgrims go to Muzdalifah to pray and sleep under the open sky. On the fourth day, pilgrims return to Mina to throw stones at pillars that represent the devil. Following this, pilgrims slaughter an animal in sacrifice (or have it done for them). The meat of the sacrificed animal is packaged and given to those in need around the world. Pilgrims' hair is then ritually shaved/cut. The fifth day, pilgrims return to Mecca and perform another circuit around the Kaaba. Pilgrims then return to Mina, to again throw stones at the pillars, remaining there for the sixth and seventh days. Pilgrims then return to Mecca, where they perform a final circuit around the Kaaba. After this, pilgrims again drink water from Zamzam well, kiss the threshold of the door of the Kaaba, and pray for forgiveness. Pilgrims leave the Kaaba walking backwards. Some pilgrims then travel to Medina and visit the tomb of Prophet Muhammad.] [Hajj Truce (through Eid al-Adha): Time to cease all forms of conflict (at least temporarily), extend a greeting to your adversary, and share a meal for peace.] [a/k/a Al-Mukarinah, Al-Ihram, Umrat al-tammatu, Tawaf, Istlam, Sai, Yaum-al-Arafah, Day of Arafaat, Al-Wukuf, Rami al-Jimar, Stoning of the Devil, Eid al-Adha, Tawaf al-Ifadah, Tawaf al-Wida] [Dhu al-Hijjah 7-13]

* 8/31 eve to 9/3 eve: Eid al-Adha--Muslim festival of sacrifice to Allah for the good of all. [An animal is sacrificed. A portion is kept and eaten; a second portion is given to relatives, friends, and neighbors; and a third portion is given to the needy. Special prayers are recited throughout the festival. Muslims exchange greetings, visit one another, and give gifts to children.] [a/k/a Eid-al-Adha, Id al-Adha, Eidul-Adha] [Dhu al-Hijjah 10-12]

* 9/3: Day gender discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1981); day to mourn all manifestations of sexism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: adopted by U.N. General Assembly 12/18/1979; signed 3/1/1980; entered into force 9/3/1981.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see U.N. Women: United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women website; Feminist Majority Foundation website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of gender.]

* 9/11: Day terrorists killed over 3,000 innocent civilians of many ethnicities and religions from 86 nations (2001); day to mourn all victims of terrorism. [Al-Qaeda terrorists, using passenger planes, struck the World Trade Center (in New York, N.Y.) and the Pentagon (outside Washington, D.C.). Because passengers on a fourth plane resisted, to prevent it from being used as a weapon, it was crashed near Shanksville, P.A.] [For statements by Muslims around the world condemning the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 as horrific and un-Islamic, see Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism; Islamic Statements Against Terrorism; Muslims Condemn Terrorist Attacks.] [Fatwas (religious edicts) condemning terrorism have been issued by Muslim clerics. Saudi Arabia's leading Islamic authority (the Permanent Committee of Religious Research and Ifta) issued a fatwa against terrorism on 6/7/2004, contending that terrorism is forbidden under Islam and constitutes a severe form of injustice. The Spanish Islamic Commission issued a fatwa condemning terrorism on 3/11/2005, and called Osama bin Laden an apostate. The U.K.'s Sunni Council issued a fatwa against terrorism on 7/17/2005, indicating that killing others is a sin and that suicide bombers will go to hell. The British Muslim Forum issued a fatwa condemning terrorism on 7/18/2005, indicating that terrorist acts are contrary to Islam. The Fiqh Council of North America issued a fatwa against terrorism on 7/28/2005, indicating that all terrorist acts targeting civilians are forbidden in Islam.] [Al-Qaeda terrorists have struck other targets. See list of Al-Qaeda's terrorist attacks.] [For international efforts against terrorism (which constitutes a crime against humanity), see U.N. Action to Counter Terrorism.] [For incidents in which governments have used the fight against terrorism as an excuse to suppress civil liberties, see Human Rights Watch website.] [While some Muslims commit terrorist acts, most Muslims do not; and most Muslims do not authorize or approve of the terrorist acts committed. While it is appropriate to hold accountable the individuals, organizations, and governments that commit or fund the terrorists acts, it is immoral to blame all Muslims for the acts of a few.]

* 9/13: Day Israelis and Palestinians committed to peaceful coexistence (1993); vigil for true peace, justice, religious tolerance, and human rights for all in the Middle East. [Declaration of Principles (a/k/a Oslo Accords) was signed by Israel & the P.L.O. on 9/13/1993.] [See Wikipedia article on the Oslo Accords. See also The History of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict.]

* 9/15: International Day of Democracy--Day to celebrate democratic systems of government throughout the world, bound by rule of law, principles of human rights, and civilian control. Day to affirm democracy's compatibility with all peoples, all cultures, and all religions. [In a democracy, both military and police are subject to rule of law and subordinate to civilian government. The military exists to protect the lawful civilian government and civilians; the police exists to enforce the law and protect people from criminals.] [See U.N. website on International Day of Democracy.] [a/k/a Democracy Day]

* 9/20 eve to 9/30 eve: Muharram/Muslim New Year (Year 1439) & A'ashurah. The Five Pillars of Islam are confession, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, and pilgrimage. [The Qur'an says: "O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct." See Qur'an Surah 49 Vs. 13. And see the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights and the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. For scholarly discussions of human rights in Islam, see "Religious Human Rights in the Qur'an" by Riffat Hassan, "Human Rights in Islam" by 'Allamah Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi, and "Universal Human Rights and 'Human Rights in Islam'" by David Littman. See also the Islamic Human Rights Commission, an organization that advocates for justice for all. But see Human Rights Watch report: Saudi Arabia  (Saudi Arabia is the center of Sunni Islam) and Human Rights Watch report: Iran  (Iran is the center of Shi'a Islam).] [a/k/a Islamic New Year] [Muharram 1-10]

* 9/21: International Day of Peace--Day to demonstrate for peace with justice throughout the world. [Peace can be realized where there is recognition of sovereignty/autonomy, compliance with just law, respectful behavior, responsible sharing of resources, cooperation to attain common goals, and reasonable compromise to enable all to meet lawful goals.] [See International Day of Peace website; International Day of Peace Vigil website.]

* 9/23: Vigil for freedom of religion in Saudi Arabia. [Sunni Islam is the official religion. Members of other Muslim sects (Shi'a, Sufi, and Ahmadi Muslims) and non-Muslim religions cannot publicly practice their religions; private worship is also subject to punishment. Most non-Muslims in Saudi Arabia are guest workers. They include Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and Sikhs. While many countries have official religions, most allow minority religions some rights and freedoms.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Saudi Arabia.] [Defining a country by its religion is contrary to international law. Excluding or disempowering another religious group is also contrary to international law. It is also immoral, regardless of whether it is committed by or against Muslims, Christians, Jews, or another religious group.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [9/23 is Saudi Arabia's National Day.]

* 9/25: Day Saudi Arabian women were granted the right to vote and run for office (2011); day to celebrate the beginning of Saudi women's empowerment. [See Wikipedia article on Women's Rights in Saudi Arabia.]

* 9/29 eve to 9/30 eve: A'ashurah--Day Shi'a Muslims mourn the death of Al-Hussain ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and the third Shi'a Imam, at the Battle of Karbala in 680. [While Shi'as consider Ali ibn Abi Talib (Al-Hussain ibn Ali's father and the Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law), to be the legitimate successor of the Prophet Muhammad, Sunnis do not. Disagreement over the succession caused civil war and a schism in Islam. Conflict between Sunnis and Shi'as continues. Vigil for the peaceful coexistence of Sunnis and Shi'as and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims.] [A'ashurah also commemorates the building of the Kaaba in Mecca in pre-Islamic times.] [A'ashurah is a fast day.] [a/k/a Ashura, Aashura] [Muharram 10]

* 9/30: Birthday of Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207), Sufi saint and poet. He believed the soul to be one with Deity, and thought ecstatic experience of Deity could be attained with music, whirling dance, and chanting Deity's holy names. [Rumi was born in Afghanistan, but later lived in Turkey, where he founded the Mevlevi Order, known as the "Whirling Dervishes".] [See article on Jalal ad-Din Rumi. And see Mevlevi Order website, Mevlevi Order of America website, and Threshold Society website.] [Death day 12/17/1273] [Wissal on Jumada al-thani 5.]

* 10/1: Vigil for freedom of religion in China. [China only recognizes 5 official religious organizations and controls their religious expression. Though its intensity waxes and wanes, persecution of independent Christians has been ongoing. China also persecutes Tibetan Buddhists, Uyghur Muslims, and Falun Gong practitioners.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: China. See also U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: Tibet.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [10/1 is China's National Day.]

* 10/2: Birthday of Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi (1869), Hindu advocate for human rights and self-reliance, who practiced active non-violent resistance to injustice. [Gandhi envisioned a world where women and untouchables would be empowered and respected. Gandhi envisioned a world where members of all faiths (including Hindus, Muslims, and Christians) would live harmoniously together.] [Death day 1/30/1948] [a/k/a Gandhi Jayanti]

* 10/7: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Afghanistan. [The Afghanistan War officially lasted from 10/7/2001 to 12/28/2014 (when the U.S./N.A.T.O. formally transferred full security responsibility to the Afghan government).] [The Taliban, a Pashtun Islamist terrorist organization led by Mullah Mohammad Omar, controlled much of Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001. They were supported by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. They were allied with Al-Qaeda, and hosted Osama Bin Laden until he relocated to Pakistan. They systematically massacred civilians when taking control of an area. They imposed an extreme form of Islamic law on Afghanis under their control, some of it not based on the Qur'an or Sharia. Women and girls were barred from education and employment and were required to wear burqas and be accompanied by male relatives when they left home. Women were treated with brutality when they did not obey. Non-Pashtun women were sold into sexual slavery (forced "marriages"). The Afghan Northern Alliance (a/k/a the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan) opposed the Taliban. The U.S./N.A.T.O. intervened in 2001. Though ousted from power in late 2001, the Taliban continued to fight the Afghan government and allies. The war has continued since the allies' official withdrawal.] [See Wikipedia articles on the Taliban, the Taliban Treatment of Women, the War in Afghanistan (1996-2001), the War in Afghanistan (2001-2014), and the War in Afghanistan (2015-present).] [For information on the human rights situation in Afghanistan, see Human Rights Watch report: Afghanistan; Amnesty International report: Afghanistan.] [The Taliban violates Islam's prohibition against taking innocent life, violates Islam's mandate to tolerate Muslims who hold other views, violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect, and violates Islam's mandate to promote the pursuit of knowledge.]

* 10/9: Day to mourn the Pakistani Taliban's attempted assassination of a 15-year-old girl because she advocated for the education of girls (2012). [Malala Yousufzai's parents run schools in the northwest part of Pakistan where the Pakistani Taliban (a/k/a Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan and T.T.P.), has been fighting Pakistani forces and has sometimes been in control. The Pakistani Taliban are opposed to the education of girls. Malala blogged for the BBC about life under the Pakistani Taliban and opposed the closure of schools by them. See Wikipedia articles on Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani Taliban, and the War in Northwest Pakistan.] [The Pakistani Taliban violates Islam's prohibition against taking innocent life, violates Islam's mandate to tolerate Muslims who hold other views, violates Islam's mandate to treat women with respect, and violates Islam's mandate to promote the pursuit of knowledge.]

* 10/18: Day the Clean Water Act was enacted (1972); day to give thanks for the water we drink. [Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on water pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Clean Water America Alliance website; Clean Water Action website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; American Rivers website.]

* 10/21: Day military attacks on civilians were outlawed world-wide (1950); day to mourn all civilian victims of war. [All soldiers have a legal duty and a moral obligation to refuse an order to attack a noncombatant. Anyone who plans, orders, or carries out such an act is legally culpable. All attacks on noncombatants should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished.] [Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War a/k/a Fourth Geneva Convention: signed 8/12/1949; entered into force 10/21/1950.] [Text of Convention] [See Wikipedia article on Fourth Geneva Convention.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should condemn all attacks on noncombatants, and should demand an end to them.]

* 10/23: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Libya. [Moammar Gaddafi was ousted from power following a civil war that commenced on 2/17/2011. Since Gaddafi's death on 10/20/2011, a transitional government was formed, and the General National Congress (GNC) was elected in 2012. Another election was held in 2014 to replace the GNC with the Council of Deputies. The validity of this election was challenged because voting did not occur in some areas due to fighting. The members of the Islamist Justice and Development Party who were not re-elected declared a "New General National Congress" on 8/25/2014. The Islamists, supported by the Libya Dawn (Fajr Libya) militias have been fighting the elected government. On 10/5/2014, other militias pledged allegiance to "Islamic State" and have since occupied Libyan territory and committed terrorist attacks and atrocities.] [See Wikipedia articles on the Libyan Civil War (2011) and the Second Libyan Civil War (2014-Present).] [10/23 is Libya's Liberation day, which was declared following Moammar Gaddafi's death.]

* 11/3: World Community Day--Day for celebrating the unity behind diversity and remembering we are all one people - all children of the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 11/6: Day a Muslim woman first defied a ban on women entering the mosque by the front door and praying in the main hall (2003). [In the Morgantown, West Virginia, mosque, as in many mosques in the United States and elsewhere, women are required to enter by a back door and pray in a separate room. Asra Nomani, the author of "Standing Alone in Mecca", began a movement to desegregate mosques throughout the United States. See media accounts of Asra Nomani's efforts.] [For scholarly discussions of gender equality in Islam, see "Members, One of Another: Gender Equality & Justice in Islam" by Riffat Hassan and "Gender Equity in Islam" by Jamal Badawi Ph.D. For an examination of the feminist movement in Islam, see "Inside the Gender Jihad: Womens Reform in Islam" by Amina Wadud.]

* 11/16: Tolerance Day--Day to promote harmony in diversity through mutual respect and understanding of all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, nationality, or economic status. [Despite international and domestic laws providing for equal rights, freedoms, and protections, members of minority groups are still harassed and discriminated against because of societal intolerance arising from fear and ignorance.] [Intolerance often results from projection of "collective guilt": it is immoral to blame an entire group for the acts of a member unless the entire group empowered the member who acted or endorsed the acts.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Tolerance; Wikipedia article on Declaration of Principles on Tolerance.] [a/k/a International Day for Tolerance]

* 11/16: Fast for an Abundant World Harvest--Day to fast and commit to action to help prevent deaths from malnourishment world-wide. [For more information, see Oxfam America website.] [a/k/a Fast for a World Harvest]

* 11/18 eve to 11/19 eve: Remembrance day for Rabi'a al-bint Isma'il 'Adawiya (717-801), Sufi saint and preacher; she loved Deity passionately. Sufis seek Truth through love, wisdom, and action. [Rabi'a lived in Iraq. She rejected worship motivated by the desire for heavenly reward or the fear of punishment; she insisted that love is the sole valid form of worship.] [See article on Rabi'a.] [a/k/a Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya al-Qaysiyya or Rabi'a al-Basri] [Rabi' al-Awwal 1] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 11/23: Thanksgiving Day--Day to give thanks for the abundance of our land and for our food, clothes, shelter, and health.

* 11/29: International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People--Vigil for recognition of the state of Palestine, for recognition of all human rights of all its citizens (whether Muslim, Jewish, or Christian), and for peaceful coexistence with the state of Israel. [See U.N. website on Solidarity with the Palestinian People Day. See also The History of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict. And see U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2015: the Occupied Territories.] [The Palestinian Authority formally requested full membership in the U.N. -- and recognition of statehood -- on 9/23/2011.]

* 11/29 eve to 11/30 eve: Mawlid al-Nabi--Day commemorating the birth of Muslim Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) (570). He conceived Deity to be a compassionate, genderless unity. [The Prophet's full name was Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim.] [While many Sufis consider Allah to be gender-inclusive and some Muslims of all denominations consider Allah to be gender-neutral, most Muslims consider Allah to be exclusively male.] [a/k/a Mawlid an-Nabi, Milad-un-Nabi, Miladun-Nabi] [Rabi' al-Awwal 12]

* 12/1: World AIDS Day--Day to pray for healing of all those suffering with AIDS and HIV. [For information on World AIDS Day, see World AIDS Day website. For information about the global fight against AIDS, see UNAIDS website.]

* 12/6: Day the Babri Mosque was destroyed by a Hindu mob in Ayodhya, India (1992); day to mourn willful destruction of any place of worship. Places of worship of all religions should be respected by all. [Prior to its construction in 1528, the mosque had been a Hindu temple that marked the birthplace of the God Rama. That temple had been destroyed by Babur as part of his effort to conquer and Islamize the area. 2000 Hindu temples were allegedly destroyed by him. The Indian government has since divided the land to allow construction of both a mosque and a temple.]

* 12/8: Death day of Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1111), Sufi saint who taught about unity of the soul with the one universal Deity of 99 names and attributes. [al-Ghazali lived in Syria and wrote "Revival of Religious Sciences" and "Alchemy of Happiness".] [Urs celebrated on Jumada al- thani 14.] [Born 1058: exact date unknown]

* 12/10: Day the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, and fundamental rights were recognized world-wide (1948). [The U.N. General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (U.D.H.R.) in Resolution 217 A(III).] [Text of Declaration] [For information on the history of the U.D.H.R., see Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt Institute website. The U.D.H.R. is generally recognized as binding customary international law: all countries are required to respect the rights within it. In 1966, the concepts of the U.D.H.R. were expanded and drafted into two binding international treaties with enforcement mechanisms. The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Human Rights Committee. The Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website; Amnesty International website.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand universal observance of all rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - for all people.] [a/k/a International Human Rights Day]

* 12/15: Day the Bill of Rights became part of the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing fundamental rights to all (1791). [Text of Bill of Rights] [For more information about the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Constitution, see U.S. National Archives & Records Administration website and the Bill of Rights Institute website. For information on organizations that advocate for enforcement of rights and liberties in the Bill of Rights, see Center for Constitutional Rights website; American Civil Liberties Union website.] [a/k/a Bill of Rights Day]

* 12/17: Death day of Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1273), Sufi saint who believed all people to be part of Deity and, consequently, believed all should be respected. [Members of his Mevlevi order whirl in his remembrance on this night annually.] [See article on Jalal ad-Din Rumi. And see Mevlevi Order website, Mevlevi Order of America website, and Threshold Society website.] [Birthday 9/30/1207] [Wissal on Jumada al-thani 5.]

* 12/17: Day the Clean Air Act was enacted (1963); day to give thanks for the air we breathe. [Pub. L. 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on air pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; American Lung Association website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/17: Day fruit vendor (and university graduate) Mohamed Bouazizi immolated himself to protest police extortion and harassment of small businesses (2010). [This began the "Arab Spring" revolutions that toppled corrupt autocratic governments in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, which recognized few legal rights, freedoms, or protections. In response to protests, governments in Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Algeria, Iraq, and Lebanon, have made some political reforms or leadership changes. See Wikipedia article on Arab Spring.]

* 12/28: Day the Endangered Species Act was enacted (1973); day to mourn those creatures already extinct. [Pub. L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on endangered species preservation, see U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/28: Day an Islamic court ruled female genital mutilation to be un-Islamic and banned the practice (1997). [The State Council, Egypt's highest administrative court, also ruled that F.G.M. is illegal unless medically necessary. See BBC News article.] [Egypt's government also criminalized F.G.M. in 2008. See U.N.F.P.A. article. However, F.G.M. continues. More than 90% of Egyptian women under age 50 have been subjected to it. See U.N.I.C.E.F. data.] [See also World Health Organization (W.H.O.) Fact Sheet on F.G.M.] [And see Gender Equity in Islam (which indicates F.G.M. predates Islam, is not mentioned in the Qur'an, and is not mandated by any hadith) and an Islamic fatwa condemning the practice of F.G.M. (ruling that F.G.M. is inconsistent with Islam because it causes harm to women) by Professor Ali Gom'a, Grand Mufti of Egypt (11/24/2006).] [For more information about F.G.M., see Female Genital and Sexual Mutilation - Bibliography.]

* 12/28 eve to 12/29 eve: Day commemorating the death of Abdul Qadir Jilani (1166), Sufi saint who was renown for his compassion, particularly for the poor. [Jilani (Gilani) lived in Iraq, was founder of the Qadiri order, and was known as Ghauth al-'Azam, the "Great Helper". On this day annually, members of his order recite the Qur'an and distribute food to pilgrims and the poor in his honor. According to the Qadiris, he was 'born of love, lived in a perfect way, and died having achieved the perfection of love."] [See articles on Abdul Qadir Jilani.] [a/k/a Abdul Qadir Jilani Urs] [Rabi' al-Thani 11] [Born 1077; birth celebrated on Sha'ban 30 or Ramadan 1]

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[The Muslim religion (Islam) is a universal religion founded in Saudi Arabia by the Prophet Muhammad, following the first revelation of the Qur'an (Koran) to him by the Angel Gabriel in 610. The Muslim holy scripture is the Qur'an. Muslim holy tradition is also reflected in the Hadith and the Sunnah, which recount the sayings and conduct of the Prophet Muhammad. The Muslim creed is: "There is no god but God (Allah), and Muhammad is the Messenger of God (Allah)." Muslims recognize the one Deity to have a multitude of names and attributes. They pray 5 times daily facing Mecca. Muslims also attend Mosques for Jum'ah prayer, Qur'anic readings, and Qur'anic interpretation on Fridays. Muslim denominations include the Sunni, the Shi'a, the Ahmadiyya (Ahmadi), and the Sufi. The main difference between the Sunnis and the Shi'ites relate to the recognition of different successors to the Prophet Muhammad. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat (now the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam) was founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Sufism (Tasawwuf) is the mysticism of Islam. Sufis practice Dhikr, the invocation of Allah by repeating Allah's 99 names and attributes.]

[The Muslim calendar (Islamic calendar or Sufi calendar) year is a lunar year, not grounded in the solar year. The Islamic year and Islamic months begin at the first sighting of the New Moon. Islamic days begin and end at sundown. In calculating the beginning of the year, the months, and the holidays, some Muslims use the first sighting of the New Moon at their own location. Other Muslims use the first sighting of the New Moon in Saudi Arabia; still others use the first sighting of the New Moon anywhere on Earth. The dates in this calendar are calculated by the Fiqh Council of North America. They now use the global means of calculating visibility. Dates based on actual sighting in North America or in Saudi Arabia may differ from these dates.]

[The Muslim holidays (Islamic holidays or Sufi holidays) in this Muslim calendar include holidays observed by all Muslim denominations, some holidays and events not universally observed, as well as dates commemorating the lives and teachings of Sufi mystics.]

[Please note: Because this calendar is a multifaith calendar, the term "God" is used only when referring to a male deity. The term "Deity" is used to refer to the Universal gender-neutral Deity that encompasses both male and female characteristics and all Gods and Goddesses.]

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The 99 Names and Attributes of Allah:

(1) Ar-Rehman (The Compassionate One, The Beneficent)
(2) Ar-Rahim (The Merciful)
(3) Al-Malik (The Sovereign)
(4) Al-Quddus (The Holy One)
(5) As-Salaam (The Source of Peace)
(6) Al-Mu'min (The Guardian of Faith)
(7) Al-Muhaymin (The Protector)
(8) Al-'Aziz (The Mighty, The Strong)
(9) Al-Jabbar (The Compeller)
(10) Al-Mutakabbir (The Majestic One)
(11) Al-Khaaliq (The Creator)
(12) Al-Bari' (The Evolver)
(13) Al-Musawwir (The Fashioner)
(14) Al-Ghaffar (The Forgiver)
(15) Al-Qahhar (The Subduer)
(16) Al-Wahhab (The Bestower)
(17) Ar-Razzaaq (The Sustainer, The Provider)
(18) Al-Fattah (The Opener, The Reliever)
(19) Al-'Alim (The All-Knowing)
(20) Al-Qaabid (The Constrictor, the Withholder)
(21) Al-Basit (The Expander, the Enlarger)
(22) Al-Khafid (The Abaser)
(23) Ar-Rafi' (The Exalter)
(24) Al-Mu'izz (The One Who Honors)
(25) Al-Muzill (The One Who Humbles)
(26) As-Sami' (The All-Hearing One)
(27) Al-Basir (The All-Seeing One)
(28) Al-Hakam (The Judge)
(29) Al-'Adl (The Just)
(30) Al-Latif (The Subtle One)
(31) Al-Khabir (The Aware)
(32) Al-Halim (The Forebearing One)
(33) Al-'Azim (The Great One)
(34) Al-Ghafur (The All-Forgiving One)
(35) Ash-Shakur (The Grateful One)
(36) Al-'Ali (The Most High)
(37) Al-Kabir (The Most Great)
(38) Al-Hafiz (The Preserver, The Protector)
(39) Al-Muqit (The Maintainer, The Guardian)
(40) Al-Hasib (The Reckoner)
(41) Al-Jalil (The Beautiful, The Sublime)
(42) Al-Karim (The Generous One)
(43) Ar-Raqib (The Watcher)
(44) Al-Mujib (The Responsive One)
(45) Al-Wasi' (The Vast, The All-Embracing One)
(46) Al-Hakim (The Wise, The Judge of Judges)
(47) Al-Wadud (The Loving One)
(48) Al-Majid (The Glorious One)
(49) Al-Ba'ith (The Resurrector)
(50) Ash-Shahid (The Witness)
(51) Al-Haqq (The Truth)
(52) Al-Wakil (The Trustee)
(53) Al-Qawi (The Most Strong)
(54) Al-Matin (The Firm One)
(55) Al-Wali (The Protecting Friend, The Supporter)
(56) Al-Hamid (The Praised One)
(57) Al-Muhsi (The Reckoner)
(58) Al-Mubdi' (The Originator)
(59) Al-Mu'id (The Restorer of Life)
(60) Al-Muhyi (The Giver of Life)
(61) Al-Mumit (The Destroyer of Life)
(62) Al Hayy (The Living One)
(63) Al-Qayyum (The Self-Subsisting One)
(64) Al-Wajid (The Perceiver)
(65) Al-Majid (The Glorious)
(66) Al-Wahid (The Unique)
(67) Al-Ahad (The One)
(68) As-Samad (The Eternal)
(69) Al-Qadir (The Able One)
(70) Al-Muqtadir (The Giver of Power)
(71) Al-Muqaddim (The Expediter)
(72) Al-Muta'akhkhir (The Delayer)
(73) Al-Awwal (The First)
(74) Al-Akhir (The Last)
(75) Az-Zahir (The Manifest)
(76) Al-Batin (The Hidden)
(77) Al-Wali (The Governor)
(78) Al-Muta'ali (The Most Exalted One)
(79) Al-Barr (The Source of All Goodness)
(80) At-Tawwab (The Accepter of Repentance)
(81) Al-Muntaqim (The Avenger)
(82) Al-Afuww (The Pardoner)
(83) Ar-Ra'uf (The Indulgent)
(84) Malik ul-Mulk (Eternal Owner of Sovereignty)
(85) Dhu'l Jalal-wa'l-Ikram (Majesty and Bounty)
(86) Al-Muqsit (The Equitable One)
(87) Al-Jami' (The Gatherer)
(88) Al-Ghani (The Self-Sufficient One)
(89) Al-Mughni (The Enricher)
(90) Al-Mani' (The Preventer)
(91) Ad-Darr (The Distresser)
(92) An-Nafi' (The Propitious One)
(93) An-Nur (The Light)
(94) Al-Hadi (The Guide)
(95) Al-Badi' (The Incomparable)
(96) Al-Baqi (The Everlasting One)
(97) Al-Warith (The Supreme Inheritor)
(98) Ar-Rashid (The Guide to the Right Path)
(99) As-Sabur (The Patient One)

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Permission to use and distribute these excerpts is granted for non-commercial purposes, provided the following information is included:

Excerpted from
THE MYSTIC'S WHEEL OF THE YEAR 2017
A Multifaith Calendar Reflecting Eco-Egalitarian Spirituality
© 2016 Marija Miovski
www.WheeloftheYear.com