The Indo-Pakistani Conflict
India has a secular democratic government and its populace is largely Hindu. Pakistan has alternated between democratic and military governments and its populace is largely Muslim. Kashmir's population is largely Muslim, but its ruler chose to join India on 10/26/1947. The U.N. proposed a plebiscite to determine the Kashmiri people's preference on 1/5/1949, but it has never been held.
India and Pakistan have fought 3 wars over Kashmir, and now have an uneasy peace. Both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and have threatened to use them. Both have also refused to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
On 4/10/2003, India threatened to attack Pakistan for its alleged involvement in the attack on the Indian Parliament on 12/13/2001 by Pakistani terrorists and for allowing continuing attacks on Kashmiri India. Though peace talks proceeded, tensions rose again following the 7/11/2006 train bombings in Mumbai and following the 11/26/2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai. The conflict is exacerbated by domestic hostility and violence between Hindu nationalists and Islamists.